The weight of a heavy snow may cause limbs to break or topple whole trees. How you deal with damaged trees after the snow melts will impact their health now and for years to come. Keep the following tips in mind when caring for storm damaged trees and shrubs:
· Be patient until the snow melts. There is little you can do to help trees right now. Trees and shrubs bent, but not broken, by the weight of snow and ice will often recover without special care. Learn more about how to care for storm damaged trees from this excellent Missouri Extension publication– First Aid for Storm Damaged Trees: http://extension.missouri.edu/p/g6867
Photo credit: Bert Cregg, MSU
For an in-depth understanding of how snow and ice can damage trees and the likely impacts on long term survival, download this exceptional guide from the University of Illinois, Trees and Ice Storms: http://www.na.fs.fed.us/urban/inforesources/TreesIceStorms2ed.pdf
· Once the snow has melted, assess the damage. If more than half of a tree’s limbs are damaged, the tree is highly unlikely to recover and should be removed. If only small limbs and twigs are damaged, the tree will likely make a full recovery. The more large branches are broken, the less likely the tree is to recover.
· If the central leader (trunk) is broken, the tree should be removed. Some trees, such as pines, have central leaders that extend all the way to the top of the tree. When the trunk on these trees fails, they will not recover.
· Young, recently planted trees that have fallen over can usually be saved. Cover any exposed roots as soon as possible to protect them from drying out or freezing. Detailed instructions for saving these trees are covered in this Louisiana Extension fact sheet <http://www.lsuagcenter.com/NR/rdonlyres/34E04CC5-B29F-440C-B81E-DDA40715A5FE/12729/uprooted1.pdf> . Mature trees and trees with trunks over 10-12” in diameter that fall should be removed. In addition, trees that partially uproot and have over 1/3 of their roots exposed are typically beyond help and should be removed. Learn more about caring from fallen trees from this Florida Extension website <http://hort.ifas.ufl.edu/woody/fallen-trees.shtml> .
· If shrubs are weighed down with snow, sweep the snow off the branches with a broom. Always sweep upward – sweeping from the top down can result in more broken branches. If the snow is frozen onto branches and will not easily dislodge by sweeping, allow it to melt naturally. Don’t shake trees and shrubs to remove snow.
· Most shrubs damaged by snow and ice can be severely pruned if necessary. Wax myrtles are particularly prone to breaking when weighed down by snow and ice but can be cut back to within a few feet of ground level and will regrow, usually within one or two seasons. Most broadleaf evergreen shrubs (camellias, azaleas, hollies) and deciduous shrubs (spiraea, butterfly bush, Knockout rose) can be treated this way, but conifers (thuja, juniper, cedars, arborvitae) cannot. Conifers that break apart in ice storms will not recover and should be removed. Keep in mind spring blooming shrubs cut back now will not bloom this year. For more pruning tips, see this recent Extension Gardener post: http://chatham.ces.ncsu.edu/2015/02/pruning-trees-and-shrubs-2/
· When pruning broken branches, know where to cut. Cutting in the wrong place can lead to decay, failure in future storms, and tree death. There is no need to paint over pruning cuts with wound dressings – in fact, this can actually harm trees. Learn more about proper pruning: http://pender.ces.ncsu.edu/2011/01/caring-for-storm-damaged-trees/.
In addition, Florida Extension has several excellent references on tree pruning:
· Pruning Cuts: http://hort.ufl.edu/woody/pruning-cuts.shtml
· Pruning woody plants: http://hort.ufl.edu/woody/pruning.shtml
· Pruning mature trees: http://hort.ufl.edu/woody/documents/ch_13_mw06.pdf
· Don’t over prune – leave as many limbs as possible. Removing more limbs than necessary reduces the tree’s ability to feed itself through photosynthesis that takes place in the leaves. Trees may look uneven or out of balance immediately after pruning, but will fill in within a few seasons. Help trees and shrubs recover from storm damage by applying a slow release or organic fertilizer in spring (March-April). Water recovering trees and shrubs during dry spells this summer and fall.
· Never have a tree topped! This practice, which cuts back all large structural branches of a tree is extremely damaging and weakens trees in the long run. If topping is your only option, the better choice is to have the tree removed and replace it with a smaller growing, stronger wooded species. Learn more about why you should not top from this Purdue Extension fact sheet: http://www.extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/FNR/FNR-FAQ-14-W.pdf
· Anytime you have a tree removed, replace it with a stronger wooded species. Trees more resistant to wind and ice damage for central NC include: crape myrtle, bald cypress, hickory, ironwood, ginkgo, and white oak.
· Some trees are weak wooded and more likely to be damaged in wind, snow and ice. Weak wooded trees commonly planted in North Carolina include: Leyland cypress, lacebark elm, Bradford pear, water oak, silver maple, green ash, willow and pecan. To minimize future damage, avoid planting these trees near structures. Learn more about what makes some trees more prone to ice damage from this New Hampshire Extension fact sheet: https://extension.unh.edu/resources/files/Resource000987_Rep1123.pdf
· Stay safe! Never cut limbs tangled in power lines – call the power company instead. Anytime removing a branch requires a ladder or a chainsaw, you should strongly consider hiring a tree care professional to do the job. Learn more about hiring a tree care professional from this NC Extension guide: http://cals.ncsu.edu/hort_sci/extension/documents/ag-691.pdf
· When pruning trees you wish to preserve, consider hiring a certified arborist. Pruning large trees and assessing tree health requires specialized skills and knowledge. If you are concerned about the health and strength of trees on your property contact a certified arborist to assess the situation. Certified arborists are highly qualified tree professionals who have passed the certified arborist exam offered through the International Society of Arboriculture.
Source: Charlotte Glen, Chatham County Cooperative Extension